Cannabinoids

One of the most valuable words in the medical cannabis glossary

Cannabinoids

What Are Cannabinoids?

One of the most valuable words in the medical cannabis glossary, that all patients need to understand, is cannabinoid. Cannabinoids, like THC, CBD and CBG, are organic chemical compounds that, with terpenes, make up the building blocks of the cannabis plant. Translating into medicinally valuable relief, cannabinoids have been successfully used in the treatment of conditions such as cancer, seizures, and Parkinson’s disease and symptoms such as inflammation, pain and nausea.

Cannabis cannabinoids provide such medical efficacy to humans because they mimic our own naturally produced endocannabinoids, and bind to the same receptors, located throughout the brain and body. The human endocannabinoid system is responsible for regulating many different body systems, including pain, memory, mood and appetite. The unique ability of cannabis cannabinoids to be able to communicate with the human body in the same manner that it communicates with itself makes it an ideal medicine for humans.

The following sections provide additional information on some of the more well-known and widely referenced cannabinoids – we’ll help explain what these cannabinoids do and how they may effect the body.  We hope that you find this information helpful.

THC
Tetrahydrocannabinol
Learn more about THC
CBD
Cannabidiol
Learn more about CBD
CBG
Cannabigerol
Learn more about CBG
CBC
Cannabichromene
Learn more about CBC
THCA
Tetrahydrocannabinolic
Learn more about THCA
CBDV
Cannabidivarin
Learn more about CBDV
CBDA
Cannabidiolic-acid
Learn more about CBDA
THCV
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Learn more about THCV

What is THC?

Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the most well-known and most often the most prevalent cannabinoid found in cannabis. This is the psychoactive component known to produce euphoria, which is more often described as the feeling of being “high.” THC binds primarily to the receptors found throughout the brain. Research has shown THC to work to reduce or even eliminate pain, nausea and stress while also helping to stimulate the appetite and combat insomnia. In high doses, THC may cause some patients to feel paranoia or an increased heart rate, but those adverse effects will subside with time.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that THC is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which THC is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - 
  • Cancer 
  • Chronic post-operative pain
  • Fibromyalgia

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the non-psychoactive cannabinoid famed for significantly reducing symptoms in patients suffering from seizure and spasm disorders such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. CBD is the cannabinoid most often recommended for children, elderly and other patients who must remain clear-headed in their activities because it is non-psychoactive, meaning it will not produce euphoria or the feeling of being “high.” CBD reacts with cannabinoid receptors throughout the human body, and works to relieve inflammation and pain while producing a calming-effect in patients. For this reason, it is often used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders. It has also been shown to work with THC to reduce the size of tumors.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBD is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBD is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Cancer
  • Seizures (including epilepsy)
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Chronic post-operative pain

What is CBN?

Cannabinol, or CBN, is a mildly psychoactive component found in cannabis which, like strongly psychoactive THC, is derived from tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THC-A). CBN is created when THC-A oxidizes. CBN can be used effectively as a sleep aid or sedative. This cannabinoid has also been shown to help regulate the immune system, and works to relieve the pain and inflammation caused by several conditions, including arthritis and Crohn’s disease. Studies show that it can be used to reduce the intraocular eye pressure caused by glaucoma. CBN acts as an anti-convulsant, so it is also beneficial to patients suffering from seizure disorders including epilepsy.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBN is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBN is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Seizures (including epilepsy)
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Chronic Post-Operative Pain

What is CBG?

Cannabigerol, or CBG, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid typically most abundant in low-THC, high-CBD cannabis strains, including hemp. Like THC, CBG reacts with the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. CBG, however, acts as a buffer to the psychoactivity of THC, by working to alleviate the paranoia sometimes caused by higher levels of THC. CBG works to fight inflammation, pain and nausea, and works to slow the proliferation of cancer cells. Research has shown it also significantly reduces intraocular eye pressure caused by glaucoma. Strains high in CBG will be beneficial treating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease and cancer.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBG is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBG is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Glaucoma
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome

What is CBC?

Cannabichromene, or CBC, is a powerful, non-psychoactive cannabinoid, meaning it will not cause a patient to feel “high.” CBC, like THC and CBD, has been shown to encourage the human brain to grow by increasing the viability of developing brain cells in a process known as neurogenesis. CBC plays a significant role in the anti-cancer and anti-tumor capabilities of cannabis. CBC battles inflammation, as well, but without activating any of the endocannabinoid receptors in the body. For this reason, the healing powers of CBC increase significantly when combined with other cannabinoids, like THC or CBD, which do activate endocannabinoid receptors in the brain and throughout the body.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBC is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBC is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Crohn's disease
  • Neuropathy
  • Chronic post-opeartive pain

What is THCA?

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. The health benefits provided by THCA are most well absorbed by the body through a raw method of consumption such as cannabis juicing. THCA works to relieve inflammation and pain, and is an ideal cannabinoid for treating symptoms of such conditions as arthritis, seizures. THCA is an effective neuroprotectant, so it is beneficial in the treatment of such conditions as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. It can also help to stimulate the appetite in patients suffering from cachexia and anorexia nervosa. Most impressively, research shows that THC-A helps to slow the proliferation of cancerous cells.

Effects & Benefits

THCA is an effective neuroprotectant, so it is beneficial in the treatment of such conditions as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. It can also help to stimulate the appetite in patients suffering from cachexia and anorexia nervosa. Most impressively, research shows that THC-A helps to slow the proliferation of cancerous cells. Research has shown that THCA is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which THCA is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Cancer
  • Seizures (including epilepsy)
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cachexia

What is CBDV?

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that will not cause the euphoric feeling of being “high.” It is found more prevalently in indica strains, specifically landrace indica strains, and strains that are lower in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Like CBD, CBDV significantly reduces the frequency and severity of seizures. It also reduces or even eliminates the nausea associated with several conditions, and helps to reduce inflammation throughout the body. CBDV is also beneficial in the treatment of pain and mood disorders.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBDV is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBDV is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Seizures
  • Crohn's
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Multiple Sclerosis

What is CBDA?

Cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. It is the acid, or precursor, form of cannabidiol. CBDA acts as an anti-proliferative, meaning that it prevents the spread of cancer cells. It is also known to relieve nausea and significantly reduce inflammation. Most uniquely, CBDA slows the growth of bacteria, so it is beneficial in the treatment of conditions such as HIV/AIDS or Crohn’s disease where the body is more susceptible to bacterial infections. Ingesting raw cannabis flowers and leaves, in a method like juicing, is the best way to consume CBDA because it is only prevalent in cannabis that has not been heated through methods of consumption like smoking or vaporizing. However, once heat has been applied and it changes to CBD, it still provides significant medical efficacy.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that CBDA is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which CBDA is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • Cancer
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • HIV/AIDS

What is THCV?

Tetrahydrocannabivarin, or THCV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found most prevalently in sativa strains of cannabis. It is known to produce a more motivated, alert and energizing feeling of euphoria. For this reason, it is often recommended for daytime or any time when functionality is important. THCV relieves stress, and research shows it can help to reduce or even prevent anxiety and panic attacks. For this reason it plays an important role in the treatment of post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD). It is also neuroprotective, so it is ideal for treating conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Unlike THC, THCV works to suppress the appetite, so it is not recommended for patients suffering from cachexia or anorexia nervosa.

Effects & Benefits

Research has shown that THCV is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which THCV is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • PTSD
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Seizures (including epilepsy)
  • Alzheimer's disease
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